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Doctoral Thesis

In the Name of God and of Profit: The Pilgrimage Industry in Southern France in the Late Middle Ages. June 1976.

Thesis Supervisor: Professor Bryce Lyon, Brown University.


The Crossroads of Justice: Law and Society in Late Medieval France, (Leiden: Brill, 1993).

Peaceable Domain, Certain Justice: Crime and Society in Fifteenth-Century Paris. (Hilversum: Verloren, 1996).

Medieval Transformations: Texts, Power, and Gifts in Context, ed. E. Cohen and M. de Jong, (Leiden: Brill, 2001).

The Modulated Scream: Pain in Late Medieval Culture, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010).

Knowledge and Pain, ed. E. Cohen, L. Toker, M. Consonni, and O. E. Dror, (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2012).

Chapters in Edited Books 

 “‘To Die A Criminal For The Public Good’: The Execution Ritual In Late Medieval Paris” in D. Nicholas and B. Bachrach, eds., Law, Custom, and the Social Fabric in Medieval Europe: Essays in Honor of Bryce Lyon, (Medieval Institute Publications: Kalamazoo, Michigan, 1990), 285-304. 

“Youth and Deviancy in the Middle Ages,” in Albert Hess, and Priscilla F. Clement, eds., History of Juvenile Delinquency, 2 vols. (Aalen: Scientia, 1990), 1:207-30. 

Gift, Payment and the Sacred in the Middle Ages, (Wassenaar: Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study, 1991).

 “Animals in Mediaeval Perceptions: The Image of the Ubiquitous Other,” in Aubrey Manning and James Serpell, eds., Animals and Human Society: Changing Perspectives, (London: Routledge, 1994), 59-80.

“The Hundred Years’ War and Crime in Paris, 1332-1488,” in Eric A. Johnson and Eric H. Monkkonen, eds., The Civilization of Crime: Violence in Town and Country Since the Middle Ages, (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1996), 109-124.

“Inquiring Once More after the Inquisitorial Process,” in Die Entstehung des öffentlichen Strafrechts: Beiträge zu einer Bestandaufnahme, ed.  Dietmar Willoweit, (Köln: Böhlau Verlag, 1999), 41-65.

“Vagrancy” in Medieval Trade, Travel, and Exploration: An Encyclopedia, ed. John B. Friedman et al. (New York: Garland Pubs., 2000), 623-624.

 “Who Desecrated the Host?” in Y. Hen, ed., De Sion exibit lex et verbum domini de Hierusalem: Essays on Medieval Law, Liturgy, and Literature in honor of Amnon Linder (Turnhout: Brepols, 2001), 197-210.

“The Expression of Pain in the Later Middle Ages: Deliverance, Acceptance, and Infamy,” in F. Egmond and R. Zwijnenberg, eds., Bodily Extremities: Preoccupations  with the Human Body in Early Modern European Culture (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 2003), 195-221.

“Sacred, secular, and impure: The contextuality of sensations,” in Sacred and Secular in Medieval and Early-Modern Cultures: New Essays, ed. Lawrence Besserman (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006), 123-133, 210-213.          

“Naming Pains: Physicians Facing Sensations,” in Benjamin Z. Kedar Festschrift volume, ed., Jonathan Riley-Smith, Iris Shagrir and Ronnie Ellenblum (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 2006), 245-262.

“The Vocabularies of Pain: A Disharmony of Different Voices,” in Piacere e dolore: Materiali per una storia delle passioni nel Medioevo, ed. Carla Casagrande and Sylvana Vecchio, (Florence: Micrologus Library ,2009), 11-28.

Cohen, E. and L. Toker, “Introduction: In Despite,” in Knowledge and Pain, (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2012), vii-xviii.

“‘If you prick us, do we not bleed?’ Reflections on the Diminishing of the Other's Pain” in Knowledge and Pain (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2012), 25-41.

“The Meaning of the Head in High­ Medieval Culture,” in Loose Heads, ed. Barbara Baert and Catrien Santing.  (Leiden: Brill, 2012), forthcoming.

[With G. Bendelow] “Emotional Pain” in Smadar Bustan, ed., Pain and Suffering, forthcoming.

Articles in Refereed Scientific Journals 

In Haec Signa: The Pilgrim-Badge Trade in Southern France,” Journal of Medieval History, 2 (1976), 193-214. 

“Roads and Pilgrims: A Study in Economic Interaction,” Studi Medievali, 3rd ser., 21 (1980), 321-342.

“Patterns of Crime in Fourteenth-Century Paris,” French Historical Studies, 11 (1980), 307-327.

“The Propaganda of Saints in the Middle Ages,” Journal of Communication, 31 (1981), 16-26.

 “Saints and their Cults,” Medievalia et Humanistica, n.s., 10 (1981), 223-228 (review article).

“Le vagabondage à Paris au XIVe siècle,” Le Moyen Age, 88 (1982), 293-313.

“Violence Control in Late Medieval France,” The Legal History Review, 51 (1983), 111-122.

“Law, Folklore, and Animal Lore,” Past and Present, 110 (February, 1986), 6-37.

[With S. Menache,] “Holy Wars and Sainted Warriors: Christian War Propaganda in the Middle Ages,” Journal of Communication, 36:2 (Spring, 1986), pp. 52-62.

 “Inversie en liminaliteit in de Rechtspraktijk van de late Middeleeuwen,” Theoretische Geschiedenis, 16 (1989), 433-443.

“Symbols of Culpability and the Universal Language of Justice: The Ritual of Public Executions in Late Medieval Europe,” History of European Ideas 11 (1989), 407-416.

[With E. Horowitz,] “In Search of the Sacred: Jews, Christians, and Rituals of Marriage in the Later Middle Ages,” Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 20 (1990), 225-250.

“Towards a History of Physical Sensibility: Pain in the Later Middle Ages,” Science in Context 8:1 (1995), 47-74.

“Fire and Tears: The Physical Manifestations of Conversion,” Dimensione e problemi della ricerca storica 2 (1996), 235-241.

 “The Animated Pain of the Body,” American Historical Review 105 (2000), 36-68.

"Thaumatology at One Remove: Empathy in Miraculous-Cure Narratives in the Later Middle Ages," Partial Answers 7, no. 2 (2009): 189-199.

Hebrew Publications

“Jewish Criminals in Late 14th-Century France,” Zion 46 (1981), 146-54.

“Animals in Human Courts: Contacts between Elite and Popular Culture,” Zemanim (1984), 40-47.

“Popular Religions and Economic Development in Medieval Europe,” in Religion and Economy, ed. M. Ben-Sasson (Jerusalem: Shazar Center, 1985), pp. 123-38.

[With Robert Cohen,] “Popular and Elite Culture: the Fallacy of the False Dichotomy,” in Popular Culture: A Collection of Studies, ed. B.Z. Kedar (Jerusalem: Shazar Center, 1996), pp. 13-31.

“Physicians’ Pain, Patients’ Pain: Learned and Popular Analgesia and Anesthesia in the Middle Ages,” Theory and Criticism: Popular Culture, ed. G. Hazan-Rokem 10 (1997), 133-44.

“Pain in the Later Middle Ages: Deliverance, Acceptance, and Infamy,” Zemanim (2002), 18-28.

“Violence, Cruelty, and Subjectivity: Porous Boundaries,” Historia: Journal of the Historical Society of Israel 9 (2002), 5-21.

"A Pilgrimage to Hell and Beyond: Santa Francesca Romana's Visions of the Afterworld," in Pilgrimages and Holy Places in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Iris Shagrir (Raanana: Open University Press, 2011), pp. 273-283.