Professor Avihu Zakai

Department of History
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Jerusalem, Israel 91905


Avihu Zakai


An Interview with Avihu Zakai.

Profile: Avihu Zakai.

Exile and Interpretation

The New Yorker - Zakai: Erich Auerbach

List of Publications

P H. D.    T H E S I S

"Exile and Kingdom: Reformation, Separation, and the Millennial Quest in the Formation of Massachusetts and Its Relationship with England, 1628-1660," pp. 570.
The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, 1982.


Exile and Kingdom: History and Apocalypse in the Puritan Migration to America, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
Reprint: Paperback edition, 2002

Europe and the New World: The Discovery and Conquest of America by European Powers in the 15th - 17th Centuries, Jerusalem: Akadamon Press, 1993. (Hebrew)
Reprint: eBook, Magnes Publishing House, 2003

Theocracy in Massachusetts: Reformation and Separation in Early Puritan New England, New York: Mellen University Press, 1994.

Jonathan Edwards's Philosophy of History: The Re-Enchantment of the World in the Age of Enlightenment, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003.
Winner of The Polonsky Prize for Creativity and Originality in the Humanistic Disciplines, The Hebrew University, 2004
Reprint: Paperback edition, 2009
Reprint: Kindle edition, 2009

History and Apocalypse: Religion and Historical Consciousness in Early Modern History in Europe and America, Jerusalem, Bialik Institute, 2008 (Hebrew)

Jonathan Edwards's Philosophy of Nature: The Re-Enchantment of the World in the Age of Scientific Reasoning,T&T Clark. 2010
Reprint: Paperback edition, 2011
Reprint: eBook, 2011

With David Weinstein, Exile and Interpretation: The Shaping of Modern Intellectual History in the Age of Nazism and Barbarism, Tel Aviv, Resling Publishing House, 2014 (Hebrew).

Fields in the Wind: A Tribute to Avraham Shapira, in Friendship and Appreciation, eds. Avihu Zakaki, Paul Mendes-Flohr, Zeev Gries, Jerusalem: Carmel, 2015 (Hebrew)

Erich Auerbach and the Crisis of German Philology: An Apologia for the Western Judaeo-Christian Humanist Tradition in an Age of Peril, Tyranny, and Barbarism , Tel Aviv: Hakibbutz Hameuchad, 2015 (Hebrew).
Reprint: eBook, 2016

Erich Auerbach and the Crisis of German Philology: The Humanist Tradition in Peril, Springer, Dordrecht, 2016 .

With David Weinstein, Jewish Exiles and European Thought in the Shadow of the Third Reich: Baron, Popper, Strauss, Auerbach, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Odysseus’ Scar: Main Issues in Erich Auerbach’s Life and Thought, Jerusalem: Carmel Publishing House, 2018 (Hebrew)

The Pen Confronts the Sword: Exiled German Scholars Challenge Nazism, Albany: SUNY Press, 2018

The Disenchantment of the World: Science and Religion in Early Modern Period, Tel Aviv, Resling Publishing House, 2018 (Hebrew).

The Pen Confronts the Sword: Exiled German Scholars Challenge Nazism, Jerusalem, Mosad Bialik, 2020 (Hebrew).

Psychological Interpretations of Nazism: Studies on the Nature and Character of Fascism, Jerusalem, Carmel Publishing House, 2020 (Hebrew).

Jewish Exiles' Psychological Interpretations of Nazism, Palgrave Macmillan, 2020.

Back to top


"Ringing the Bells of Jerusalem Shdemot 36 (1970). (Hebrew)

"Exile as a Lost Kingdom: On the Writings of Yehuda Yaari", Shdemot 33 (Summer,1971), pp. 50-56. (Hebrew)

"Acquired Rights and Present Ills", Shdemot 37 (Summer, 1972), pp. 6-11. (Hebrew)

"Fundamental Principles in Kant's Theory of Ethics", Basha'ar: A Social and Cultural Review 15 (July-August, 1972), pp. 291-301. (Hebrew)

"Weber's Thesis and Criticism", Basha'ar: A Social Cultural Review 15 (July-August,1972), pp. 158-174. (Hebrew)

"Epiphany at Matadi: Perry Miller's Orthodoxy in Massachusetts and the Meaning of American History", Reviews in American History 8 (December, 1985), pp. 627-641.

"The Millennial Quest in the New England Errand into the Wilderness", Religion, Ideology and Nationalism in Europe and America, eds. A. Goren at al. (Jerusalem, Magnes Press,1986), pp. 187-201.

"The Gospel of Reformation: The Origins of the Great Puritan Migration", The Journal of Ecclesiastical History 38 (October, 1986), pp. 584-602.

"Theocracy in New England: The Nature and Meaning of the Holy Experiment in the Wilderness", The Journal of Religious History 14 (December, 1986), pp. 133-151.

"Puritan Millennialism and Theocracy in Early Massachusetts", History of European Ideas 8(1987), pp. 309-318.

"The Ministers' View of Church and State", Scripta Hierosolymitana 32; Studies in
American Civilization
, E. M. Budick, et al., eds., (Magnes Press, Jerusalem, 1987), pp. 1-25.

"Reformation, History, and Eschatology in English Protestantism", History and Theory 16 (October, 1987), pp. 300-318.

"Homage to an Historian: Essay in Honor of Prof. Y. Arieli", Davar (January 2, 1987), pp. 19-20. (Hebrew)

"Perry Miller", The Dictionary of Historians (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988), pp. 279-281.

"Religious Toleration and Its Enemies: The Independent Divines and the Issue of Toleration During the English Civil War", Albion 21 (Spring 1989), pp. 1-33.

"Thomas Brightman and English Apocalyptic Tradition", Menasseh Ben Israel and his World, Y. Kaplan, et al., eds. (E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1989), pp. 31-44.

"Orthodoxy in England and New England: Puritans and the Issue of Religious Toleration, 1640-1650", Proceeding of The American Philosophical Society, 135 (1991), pp. 401-441.

"Bye Bye Columbus: Why Columbus did not 'Discover America'", Davar (Sep. 27, 1992), p. 26. (Hebrew)

"The Geographies of the Mind", Al Hamishmar (October 10, 1992), p. 12. (Hebrew)

"In Search of the Promised Paradise", Al Hamishmar (October 25, 1992), p. 14. (Hebrew)

"Time, History and Eschatology: Ecclesiastical History from Eusebius to Augustine", The Journal of Religious History 17 (December, 1993), pp. 393-417.

"The Marvelous Voyage in Search of the Treasures of the East", Alpayim 7 (1993), pp. 165-83. (Hebrew)

"Utopia in America", Machshavot 65 (July, 1993), pp. 50-63. (Hebrew)

"Theocracy in Massachusetts: The Puritan Universe of Sacred Imagination", Studies in the Literary Imagination 27 (May, 1994), pp. 17-25.

"The Poetics of History and the Destiny of Israel: The Role of the Jews in English Apocalyptic Thought during the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries", The Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy 5 (1996), pp. 313-350.

"The Poetics of History and the Destiny of Israel: The Role of the Jews in English Apocalyptic Thought during the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries", Zmanim 55 (1996),pp. 72-91. (Hebrew)

"From Judgment to Salvation: The Image of the Jews in Renaissance England", Westminster Journal 59 (Fall 1997), pp. 213-230.

"History and Apocalypse of the Puritan Migration to America", Following Columbus: America 1492-1992 (Jerusalem: The Zalman Shazar Center for Jewish History, 1996), pp. 227-254. (Hebrew)

"The Conversion of Jonathan Edwards", Journal of Presbyterian History 76 (Summer, 1998),pp. 1-12.

With A. Ramati, "The Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Scientific Imagination", Science and Religion Together, ed. R. L. Herrmann (Philadelphia: Templeton Press, 2001), pp. 41-51.

"Jonathan Edwards and the Language of Nature: The Re-Enchantment of the World in the Age of Scientific Reasoning", The Journal of Religious History 26 (February 2002), pp. 15-41.

"Religion and Revolution: The Puritan Rhetoric and Democracy in America", Democracy in America, ed. A. Gutfeld (Tel Aviv: Zmora, Bitan Moden, 2002), pp. 254-85. (Hebrew)

"Yehushua Arieli", OAH Newsletter 30 (November 2002), p. 21.

"Yehushua Arieli", AHA Perspectives 40 (November 2002), p. 43

"Yehushua Arieli", History 11 (2003), pp. 7-8 (Hebrew)

"Jonathan Edwards's Vision of History", Historically Speaking (June 2003), pp. 28-30.

"Yehushua Arieli - The Destiny of Man and the Cunning of History", Zmanim (Summer 2003), pp. 3-4. (Hebrew)

"Religion and Ethics in Early Modern History: Jonathan Edwards and the Enlightenment Debate on Moral Philosophy", Zmanim (Summer 2003), pp. 28-41. (Hebrew)

"John Calvin", Encyclopedia of Community: From the Village to the Virtual World, eds. Christensen, Karen and David Levinson, 4 Vols. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2003), I, pp. pp 113-115.

"Jonathan Edwards", The New Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 60 Vols. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), XVII, pp. 944-49.

"Refugees, Exiles, and Emigres", Europe 1450-1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World, ed. Jonathan Dewald, 6 Vols. (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004), V, pp.161-63.

"Jonathan Edwards's Philosophy of History", History and Theory 43 (May 2004), pp. 293-4.

"The Ideological Context of Edwards's Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God", Fides et Historia 36(Summer/Fall 2004), pp. 1-18.

"Jonathan Edwards, the Enlightenment, and the Formation of Protestant Tradition in America", The Creation of the British Atlantic World, eds. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 2005), pp. 182-208.

"Cotton Mather", Encyclopedia of Witchcraft, 4. vols. (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2006), III, pp.732-4.

"Goodwin Children", Encyclopedia of Witchcraft, 4 vols. (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2006), II, pp. 452-3.

"The Age of Enlightenment", The Cambridge Companion to Jonathan Edwards, ed. Stephen Stein (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006), pp. 80-99.

"The Irony of American History: Reinhold Niebuhr's Critique of the American Experience", The Heart's Furrow: A Tribute to Moki Tzur, ed. A. Shapira (Tel Aviv: Hakibbutz Hameuchad, 2006), pp. 400-16. (Hebrew)

"Theocracy", International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2nd edition,ed William A. Darity, Jr. 9 vols (Detroit: Macmillan, 2008), VIII, pp.342-3.

With David Weinstein, "Exile and Interpretation: Popper's Re-Invention of the History of European Political Thought", Journal of Political Ideologies 11 (June 2006), pp. 185-209.

With David Weinstein, "Exile and Interpretation: Popper's Re-Invention of the History of European Political Thought", Zmanim (Winter 2008), pp.14-27. (Hebrew)

"The Irony of American History: Reinhold Niebuhr's Critique of the American Experience", La Revue LISA/ LISA e-journal, World War II Thematic dossier, 2008, pp. 1-21:

"The Rise of Modern Science and the Decline of Theology as the 'Queen of Sciences'", Renaissance and Reformation Review 9:2 (2009), pp. 125-151.

"The Theological Origins of Jonathan Edwards's Philosophy of Nature", Journal Ecclesiastical History, Vol.60 (October 2009)pp. 708-724.

With David Weinstein, "Leo Strauss: The Exile of Interpretation", New Trends in German Jewish History, Vol.13 (October 2009)pp. 13-31. (Hebrew)

"Bill of Rights", Encyclopedia of Jewish Cultures, Simon Dubnow Institute for Jewish History and Culture (Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler, 2011), Vol. I, pp. 346-350.

"The Medieval and Scholastic Dimensions of Edwards's Philosophy of Nature", Jonathan Edwards as Contemporary: Essays in Honor of Sang Hyun Lee, ed. Don Schweitzer (New York: Peter Lang, 2011), pp. 15-31.

"Erich Auerbach and his 'Figura': An Apology for the Old Testament in an Age of Aryan Philology", Religions 3, (2012) pp. 320–338.

"Philology and Racism", Ha'aretz April 14th 2012. (Hebrew)

"German Orientalism", Ha'aretz August 9th 2012. (Hebrew)

"Auerbach on the tragic", Ha'aretz November 9th 2012. (Hebrew)

"Nature is not mathematics", Ha'aretz December 14th 2012 (Hebrew)

"Professor of Exile: Edward Said’s Misreading of Erich Auerbach", Moment Magazine August 14th, 2014

"Exile and Interpretation: On Edward Said's Uses and Abuses of Erich Auerbach's Works", Katharsis (Jerusalem: Carmel Publishing House, 2014), pp. 129-151. (Hebrew)

"INTRODUCTION to Fields in the Wind", Fields in the Wind: A Tribute to Avraham Shapira, in Friendship and Appreciation, eds. Avihu Zakaki, Paul Mendes-Flohr, Zeev Gries, (Jerusalem: Carmel, 2015), pp. 9-14. (Hebrew)

"Masada – 'Book of Generation and a Perfect Work'", in: Fields in the Wind: A Tribute to Avraham Shapira, in Friendship and Appreciation, eds. Avihu Zakaki, Paul Mendes-Flohr, Zeev Gries, (Jerusalem: Carmel, 2015), pp. 123-153. (Hebrew)

"Exile and Criticism: Edward Said’s Interpretation of Erich Auerbach", in: Society, (2015) 52:275–282

"The Allegory of the Poem 'Masada'", in: New Direction, 32 (July 2015), pp. 257-270. (Hebrew)

"Constructing and Representing Reality: Hegel and the Making of Erich Auerbach’s Mimesis", in: Digital Philology: A Journal of Medieval Cultures, 2005, 4:1 spring, pp.106-133.

"Figura’ and Mimesis in Cultural War: Erich Auerbach’s Struggle against Aryan Philology", in: Atmol (Yesterday) 242, November 2015 pp. 19-22 (Hebrew).

"Dante and the “Discovery of European Representation of Man"", in: Haptiliya, viewed: March 1st, 2016 (Hebrew).

"The End of Western civilization", in: Haaretz, viewed: March 25th, 2016 (Hebrew).

"Doktor Faustus: "The Secret Union of the German Spirit with the Demonic"", in: Haptiliya, viewed: April 13th, 2016 (Hebrew).

"Ernst Cassirer and "The Myth of the State"", in: Haaretz, viewed: June 3rd, 2016 (Hebrew).

"Election in America, published originally in: YNET, viewed: November 16th, 2016 (Hebrew).

""Doktor Faustus' Apocalypse and Eschatology: 'The Secret Union of the German Spirit with the Demonic'", Tabur: Journal for Central European History, 7, 2016, pp. 1-48. (Hebrew).

"The Secret Union of the German Spirit with the Demonic", Haaretz, June 1, 2017 (Hebrew).

"Apocalypse/Apocalypticism, The Jonathan Edwards Encyclopedia, Eerdmans Publishing, 2017

"Sad Lamentation for memorial Day 2018, Hazman Hayarok, May 3, 2018 (Hebrew)

"A Psychological Inquiry into Totalitarianism: Erich Fromm's Escape From Freedom, Society, October 2018, Volume 55, Issue 5, pp 440–450

"Geoffrey Hartmen: Text, Spirit and Collective Memory, Haaretz, March 29, 2019 (Hebrew)

"Wilhelm Reich and the Mass Psychology of Fascism, Haaretz, April 30, 2019 (Hebrew)

"Erich Neumann's Depth Psychology and New Ethic", Tabur: Journal for Central European History, 9, 2019, pp. 63-85. (Hebrew).

"The Old Testament and Homer, Haaretz, August 12, 2019 (Hebrew)

"Dialectic of Enlightenment, Alaxon, December 1, 2019 (Hebrew)

"From Devil to Saint: Machiavelli in History and Historiography, Alaxon, February 16, 2020 (Hebrew)

"Erich Neumann and the Crisis of Western Ethics, Society, 57, 332–342 (2020)

"Max Weber on Religion, Rationalism and Capitalism, Alaxon, April 29, 2020 (Hebrew)

"The Mystery of the Missing Father, The Garage, 82, August 12, 2020 (Hebrew)

"The Poverty of the Middle Class, Green Time, September 17, 2020 (Hebrew)

"Weimar Cinema as Pandora’s Box, Tabur: Yearbook for Central European History, Society, Culture and Thought, , Issue 10, 2020 (Hebrew)

"Exile is a lack of friendship and love, Alaxon, December 1, 2020 (Hebrew)

Back to top


Christian England, Vol. II. From the Reformation to the 18th Century, by David L. Edwards, History of European Ideas 9 (1988), pp. 233-235.

To Live Ancient Lives: The Primitivist Dimension in Puritanism, by Theodora Dwight Bozeman, Albion 21 (Fall, 1989), pp. 492-493.

Tom Paine: The Greatest Exile, by David Powell, History of European Ideas 10 (1989),pp. 371-372.

The Last American Puritan: The Life of Increase Mather, by Michael G. Hall, Reviews in American History 18 (March, 1990), pp. 33-37.

Era of Persuasion: American Thought and Culture, 1521-1680, by E. Brooks Holifield, Journal of American History 79 (December, 1992), p. 1132.

On Behalf of Israel: American Fundamentalist Attitudes Toward Jews, Judaism, and Zionism, 1865 - 1945, by Yaakov Ariel, American Jewish Archives 45 (Fall/Winter 1993), pp. 270-274.

An Empire of their Own: How the Jews Invented Hollywood, by Neal Gabler, Ha'aratz (December 10, 1993), p. 8. (Hebrew)

Authorizing the Past: The Rhetoric of History in Seventeenth Century New England, by Stephen C. Arch, The William and Mary Quarterly 3 (January, 1996), pp.208-210.

Seers of God: Puritan Providentialism in the Restoration and Early Enlightenment, by Michael P. Winship, Utopian Studies 7 (1996), pp. 352-354.

Anti-Semitic Stereotypes: A Paradigm of Otherness in English Popular Culture, 1660-1830, by Frank Felsenstein, Zion 62 (1997), pp. 88-93. (Hebrew)

Covenant and Republic: Historical Romance and the Politics of Puritanism, by Philip Gould, Journal of Presbyterian History 77 (1999), p. 210.

John Clarke and His Legacies: Religion and Law in Colonial Rhode Island 1638-1750, by Sydney V. James Journal of American History 87 (June 2000), pp.199-200.

Evangelizing the Chosen People: Missions to the Jews in America, 1880-2000, by Yaakov Ariel, American Jewish Archives 54 (2002), pp. 105-7.

Jonathan Edwards: A Life, by G. M. Marsden. Journal of American History 90 (March, 2004), p. 1423.

Jonathan Edwards at Home and Abroad: Historical Memories, Cultural Movements, Global Horizons, Edited by David W. Kling and Douglas A. Sweeney, Journal of Presbyterian History 84 (Fall/Winter 2006), pp. 185-6.

Anglo American Millennialism, From Milton to the Millerites, eds. Richard Connors and Andrew C. Gow, American Historical Review 110 (Oct. 2005), pp. 1131-32.

Early New England: A Covenanted Society, by David A. Weir, Journal of American History 95(June 2006), p. 176.

Stories of Independence: Identity, Ideology, and History in Eighteenth Century America, by Peter C. Messer, William and Mary Quarterly 63 (July 2006), pp. 625-8.

Apocalypse Then: Prophecy and the Making of the Modern World, by Arthur H. Williamson, American Historical Review 114 (April 2009), pp. 421-22.

Rome Reborn on Western Shores: Historical Imagination and the Creation of the American Republic, by Eran Shalev, Zmanim 113 (Summer 2010), pp. 113-116. (Hebrew)

After Jonathan Edwards: The Course of the New England Theology, edited by Oliver D. Crisp and Douglas A. Sweeney, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 65 (January 2014), pp 216-217.

Educational Aims in the 21st Century: The View from Israel, by Avraham Frank, Yediot Ha-kibutz, August 12, 2016, p. 24.

Ran Cohen: Said, by Ran Cohen, Green Time, Newsletter of the Kibbutz Movement, 1549 (Sept 29, 2016), p. 28. (Hebrew)

"Geoffrey Hartman - Interpretation, Judaism, and Western Humanism", Tabur: Journal for Central European History, 9, 2019, pp. 86-94. (Hebrew).

"Doctor Faustus and Machiavelli", Haaretz, November 3, 2019 (Hebrew).

"Band of Brothers, ha-Zman ha-Yarok, February 6, 2020 (Hebrew)

"Defeated and Defeated, Makor Rishon (First Source), February 14, 2020 (Hebrew)

"Letter to a Child Survivor of the Holocaust, Amirot, July, 2020 (Hebrew)

"Einstein and Freud and the Next War, Alaxon, October 1, 2020 (Hebrew)

Back to top      עברית